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Business: Support Materials: Citing and Referencing

What is referencing?

When you use an idea or information from another source, e.g.. from a book, journal, film, image or sound recording, etc. you must acknowledge where you got this information.

Acknowledging the work of other people in your own work is citing and referencing.

When used correctly, citing and referencing...

  • Adds credibility to your arguments and demonstrates that you understand key issues in your subject,
  • Shows your ability to evaluate and critically apply this understanding to your work.

If you need any help with your citing and referencing, click on the Where To Get Help tab in this guide.

Referencing Resources

Need help? These guides will take you through the typical resources you will be citing and referencing in your assignments!

There are two parts to citing and referencing...

1. Citations are used in your assignments when you have used someone else's work.

For example, "Apple recently anounced its new venture, Apple Music (Apple, 2020)."

Note: You do not need to cite common knowledge. For example, "Apple is a prominent company in the technology sector."

Examples of a citation in written work

Examples: short, direct quotations  'If you need to illustrate the idea of nineteenth-century America as a land of opportunity, you could hardly improve on the life of Albert Michelson' (Bryson, 2004, p. 156).  Lomotey (2018, para. 4) said ‘the children remained calm like professionals’.

Example  Harrison (2007, p. 48) clearly distinguishes between the historical growth of the larger European nation states and the roots of their languages and linguistic development, particularly during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. At this time, imperial goals and outward expansion were paramount for many of the countries, and the effects of spending on these activities often led to internal conflict.

2. The reference list goes at the end of your written work and contains all of the resources that you have cited.

The reference list goes in alphabetical order by author surname or organisation name.

Each resource in the list will have a set format (e.g. book, website, journal article) so someone can look at your reference list and tell what type of resources you have used.

An example of a reference list

Example reference list	 BBC (2017) Energy use and the environment. Available at (Accessed: 18 August 2018). Bowman, R. and Jenkins, S. (2011) 'Financial and environmental issues and comparisons in new and old build properties', in Harris, P. (ed.) Studies on property improvements and environmental concerns in modern Britain. London: Pinbury, pp. 124–145. British Gas (2012) A green light to save you more. Eastbourne: British Gas. Department of the Environment (2018) Energy and the environment in Britain today. Available at: (Accessed: 18 August 2018). Hallwood, L. (2016) 'The good work of sustainable energy organisations continues', The Times, 20 June, pp. 20–21. Hampson, P. and Carr, L. (2017) 'The impact of rising energy use on the environment: a five-year study', Journal of Energy and Environmental Issues, 53(5), pp. 214–231. Kirkwood, L., Harper, S. and Jones, T. (2011) The DIY culture in Britain: costs for homes and the nation. Available at: (Accessed: 18 August 2018).

Examples taken from Cite Them Right Online.

Tools to help with your Citing and Referencing

Cite Them Right Online Logo

Cite Them Right Online is a resource provided by the university, so you can check your citations and references.

You can access Cite Them Online through the link above, or by going to the My Study tab in myUnihub and clicking on Referencing in the My Library box.

Learn about citing and referecning by clicking on basics of referencing in the top-hand menu bar. You will find guidance, videos, and examples to help with your referencing.

You can use Cite Them Right Online to find how to reference different resources.

First, click on Choose Referencing Style in the top-hand menu bar and select Harvard.

You can then navigate Cite Them Right Online by:

  • Using the Quick Links at the top of the page,
  • Clicking on the headings and browsing through the sub-headings,
  • Typing what resource you want to reference into the search bar.


Logo for ProQuest RefWorks

RefWorks is a web-based referencing management software that allows you to create your own personal database of references. You can:

  • Import and store references from text files, online databases, and other various sources,
  • Automatically create citations and references to insert into your assignments!

To set up a RefWorks account go to sign up.

  • Use your full Middlesex email address.

You still need to double-check your references, even if you use RefWorks to automatically generate them.

More information on using RefWorks is on the Research Library Guide.