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Fashion, Textiles and Jewellery: Referencing for Art and Design

What is referencing? Why do you need it?

At University it is very important that your work is fully referenced. This means you must provide details of your sources wherever you draw arguments, ideas, facts or quotations from other authors.

This shows your tutors the valuable research that has informed your writing, and helps back up the arguments you put forward in your work. Giving detailed references is also necessary to avoid plagiarism.If you are worried about this issue, please see our library subject guide pages on plagiarism.

In learning to reference sources, you are expected to master academic conventions for the documentation of your research. There are a number of competing versions of these academic conventions.

Image: Wonderlane

Referencing style in the School of Art and Design at Middlesex

As of September 2014, the School of Art and Design has adopted the 'Harvard' style of referencing (also called author-date referencing) as our preferred and supported referencing style. We ask our undergraduate and MA students to use the Harvard standard laid out in Cite them right – a widely available guidebook for referencing.

We have adopted this as the most user-friendly system of referencing. The use of this system means footnotes are not necessary to cite sources, although within the School of Art and Design you are still free to use footnotes to give further explanation of your arguments or details of your research.

More books

'Cite them right' Harvard style: What's needed

The author-date (Harvard) system of referencing involves two elements:

1) In the text itself, you include brief citations in brackets identifying the sources you have used.

2) At the end of the essay you include a reference list. This includes full details of all the texts you have cited, ordered alphabetically.

1) Your in-text citations: Some examples

Your citations should include the surname of the cited author(s), the date of the publication in question, and the page(s) on which the cited quote or information occurs. You can either flow the author’s name naturally in to your sentence, with the date and page number in brackets next to it, or alternatively, where you prefer, all three elements can be placed in brackets.


According to Martha Buskirk (2003, p.34), 'No work of art is immune to the circumstances of its presentation'.

The authors of A thousand plateaus propose that though capitalists may rely on a mastery of surplus value itself and the ways in which this is distributed, they nonetheless cannot control the libidinal, vital and material flows from which this value is ultimately derived (Deleuze and Guattari, 1988, p.226).

The birth of the notion of the flâneur can be traced back to the writings of Edgar Allan Poe (Milliard, 2010, p.2).

2) Your reference list: Some examples

Your essay should also conclude with a reference list. This includes full details of the sources you have cited.

The following examples cover some of the most commonly cited types of source, but are not intended to be exhaustive of the kinds of material you may be citing, that is to say, you will no doubt be using other kinds of sources .For further guidance, please refer to Cite them Right.

A book

Example 1 - simple example

Buskirk, M. (2003) The contingent object of contemporary art. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.

Example 2 - a book with 2 authors and a translator.

Deleuze, G. and Guattari, F. (1988) A thousand plateaus. Translated by B. Massumi. London: Athlone Press.


An essay in an edited book


Foucault, M. (1995) 'Truth and power', in Tallack, D. (ed.) Critical theory: a reader. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, pp. 66–77.


An article in a periodical

Example 1 – an academic journal with volume and issue numbers

Turner, B.S. (2005) 'Bodily performance: on aura and reproducibility', Body and Society, 11 (4), pp. 1–17.

Example 2 – a magazine with issue and month

Milliard, C. (2010) 'Walks of life', Art Monthly, 337 (June), pp. 1–4.


A newspaper article

Example - NB: this is an article in a special separately numbered section of the paper ("G2")

Jones, J. (2003) 'He’s gotta have it' The Guardian: G2, 4 April, pp.  2–16.


An internet page


Judkins, B. (2014) Through a lens darkly (26): taking a second look at 'A group of Chinese boxers'. Available at: (Accessed 20 September 2014).

Captions and illustrations: More information

For more detailed guidance on using illustrations and captions, click on the pdf above.

Cite them right online

Cite them right online is also available to Middlesex students (accessed via the library catalogue). You will need to be logged in to MyUnihub to ensure access.

The online bibliography generation tool citethisforme can also be used to help generate citations in the required style – set the ‘citation style’ dropdown menu in this to ‘Harvard – Cite Them Right’.


Accessing Cite them right

Cite Them Right

Cite them right is available cheaply in book form, and the library have a large number of copies, shelved at 016 PEA, click here to find it on the library catalogue.


As art and design students you will often write about images and designed objects/spaces. When you include images of these in your essay, remember to:

  1. caption the images (with a figure number and some details about the image);
  2. refer to them in your text (tell the reader when to look at the image);
  3. give details about where the images came from in a List of Illustrations, and in the Reference list .

Fig. 1. Zandra Rhodes, Butterfly no. 36, 1971 [Habotai silk, ostrich feathers, velvet] VADS, Zandra Rhodes Digital Study Collection (

  1.  caption your image in your work as shown above
  2. refer to the image in your text eg. (see fig. 1)
  3. In your list of illustrations eg.

Fig 1: Zandra Rhodes, Butterfly no. 36, 1971. [Habotai silk, ostrich feathers, velvet] VADS, Zandra Rhodes Digital Study Collection ( [adding the page number where you have placed the image in your work]

For more information about citing images in your work, see the link to the left of this box.