At University it is very important that your work is fully referenced. This means you must provide details of your sources wherever you draw arguments, ideas, facts or quotations from other authors.
This shows your tutors the valuable research that has informed your writing, and helps back up the arguments you put forward in your work. Giving detailed references is also necessary to avoid plagiarism.If you are worried about this issue, please see our library subject guide pages on plagiarism.
In learning to reference sources, you are expected to master academic conventions for the documentation of your research. There are a number of competing versions of these academic conventions.
As of September 2014, the School of Art and Design has adopted the 'Harvard' style of referencing (also called author-date referencing) as our preferred and supported referencing style. We ask our undergraduate and MA students to use the Harvard standard laid out in Cite them right – a widely available guidebook for referencing.
We have adopted this as the most user-friendly system of referencing. The use of this system means footnotes are not necessary to cite sources, although within the School of Art and Design you are still free to use footnotes to give further explanation of your arguments or details of your research.
The author-date (Harvard) system of referencing involves two elements:
1) In the text itself, you include brief citations in brackets identifying the sources you have used.
2) At the end of the essay you include a reference list. This includes full details of all the texts you have cited, ordered alphabetically.
Your citations should include the surname of the cited author(s), the date of the publication in question, and the page(s) on which the cited quote or information occurs. You can either flow the author’s name naturally in to your sentence, with the date and page number in brackets next to it, or alternatively, where you prefer, all three elements can be placed in brackets.
According to Martha Buskirk (2003, p.34), 'No work of art is immune to the circumstances of its presentation'.
The authors of A thousand plateaus propose that though capitalists may rely on a mastery of surplus value itself and the ways in which this is distributed, they nonetheless cannot control the libidinal, vital and material flows from which this value is ultimately derived (Deleuze and Guattari, 1988, p.226).
The birth of the notion of the flâneur can be traced back to the writings of Edgar Allan Poe (Milliard, 2010, p.2).
Your essay should also conclude with a reference list. This includes full details of the sources you have cited.
The following examples cover some of the most commonly cited types of source, but are not intended to be exhaustive of the kinds of material you may be citing, that is to say, you will no doubt be using other kinds of sources .For further guidance, please refer to Cite them Right.
Example 1 - simple example
Buskirk, M. (2003) The contingent object of contemporary art. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
Example 2 - a book with 2 authors and a translator.
Deleuze, G. and Guattari, F. (1988) A thousand plateaus. Translated by B. Massumi. London: Athlone Press.
An essay in an edited book
Foucault, M. (1995) 'Truth and power', in Tallack, D. (ed.) Critical theory: a reader. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, pp. 66–77.
An article in a periodical
Example 1 – an academic journal with volume and issue numbers
Turner, B.S. (2005) 'Bodily performance: on aura and reproducibility', Body and Society, 11 (4), pp. 1–17.
Example 2 – a magazine with issue and month
Milliard, C. (2010) 'Walks of life', Art Monthly, 337 (June), pp. 1–4.
A newspaper article
Example - NB: this is an article in a special separately numbered section of the paper ("G2")
Jones, J. (2003) 'He’s gotta have it' The Guardian: G2, 4 April, pp. 2–16.
An internet page
Judkins, B. (2014) Through a lens darkly (26): taking a second look at 'A group of Chinese boxers'. Available at: http://chinesemartialstudies.com/2014/09/19/through-a-lens-darkly-26-taking-a-second-look-at-a-group-of-chinese-boxers/ (Accessed 20 September 2014).
For more detailed guidance on using illustrations and captions, click on the pdf above.
The online bibliography generation tool citethisforme can also be used to help generate citations in the required style – set the ‘citation style’ dropdown menu in this to ‘Harvard – Cite Them Right’.
As art and design students you will often write about images and designed objects/spaces. When you include images of these in your essay, remember to:
Fig. 1. Zandra Rhodes, Butterfly no. 36, 1971 [Habotai silk, ostrich feathers, velvet] VADS, Zandra Rhodes Digital Study Collection (http://www.vads.ac.uk/large.php?uid=200251&sos=3)
Fig 1: Zandra Rhodes, Butterfly no. 36, 1971. [Habotai silk, ostrich feathers, velvet] VADS, Zandra Rhodes Digital Study Collection (http://www.vads.ac.uk/large.php?uid=200251&sos=3) [adding the page number where you have placed the image in your work]
For more information about citing images in your work, see the link to the left of this box.